tfidf header

The Ultimate Beginner to Advanced Guide

You might have seen the time period TF IDF being tossed round within the final 12 months or so, however nobody might blame you for those who haven’t began paying consideration but.

A whole lot of Search engine marketing fads come and go, and a number of the most fascinating ideas simply find yourself attracting penalties, in a while, proper?

But TF IDF is one thing somewhat totally different.

It’s not a manipulation of Google search outcomes; it’s a way of analyzing the subjects in content material, and it’s constructed on the identical rules as the major search engines themselves. Because of that, it has wonderful potential for SEOs who want a very goal methodology to measure and enhance content material.

I only recently wrapped up a case research into precisely what it’s able to, and the outcomes are fairly fascinating.

In case a few of you might be the place I used to be just a few months in the past, I would like to make it possible for I cowl what I realized about TF IDF, and the way it’s used earlier than I get to what I realized from my private experiments with it.

The crash course begins within the subsequent part, however for those who’re an skilled person already, you’ll find the outcomes of my private checks and a few comparisons of the highest TF IDF instruments close to the tip.

Looking ahead to your questions and feedback.

What is TF IDF?

So what’s TF IDF? An acronym? An equation? A very obscure textual content emoji?

It’s a minimum of two of these issues.

In literal phrases, it means Term Frequency instances Inverse Document Frequency.


TF IDF is an equation that mixes these two measurements—the measurement of how steadily a time period is used on a web page (TF), and the measurement of how typically that time period seems in all pages of a group (IDF) — to assign a rating, or weight, to the significance of that time period to the web page.

I do know… nerd alert, proper?

We’ll take a look at why that is so essential to SEOs in a bit, however first, let’s take a look at the place it got here from.

The equation has a very long history in academia, the place researchers in fields as numerous as linguistics and data structure have used it to analyze large libraries of paperwork shortly.

It’s additionally utilized by data retrieval applications (together with all serps) to kind and choose the relevance of hundreds of thousands of search outcomes effectively.

There is a vital distinction between what you need to do and what the search engine needs to do with this similar data.

The search engine needs to take into account a group made up of all of the search outcomes on the net when you need to examine one web page or web site to simply the websites which are out-performing it…. particularly the highest 10.

Let’s take a look at TF and IDF in additional depth…

The Equations that take you to TF*IDF


You want to do some extra math to get each of the measurements involved, that is TF and IDF. however I promise it received’t be tough. Depending on the applying, the equations for TF IDF can get much more sophisticated than the examples I’m utilizing beneath.

Simplified or not, you typically don’t need to be caught doing this work by hand for those who’re attempting to optimize a web site. These equations will assist you to perceive how TF IDF capabilities, however it’s the content material optimization instruments I’m discussing on the finish that basically open up the potential.

Solve the primary one, Term Frequency, by doing a uncooked depend of the variety of instances a time period seems on one web page. Then, plug that quantity into the equation beneath:

Term frequency = (uncooked depend of phrases) / (complete phrase depend of doc)

Alone, the TF rating can let you know whether or not you’re utilizing a phrase too hardly ever or too typically, however it’s solely actually helpful when weighed towards the opposite measure.

Calculate the Inverse Document Frequency by dividing the variety of paperwork the time period seems in by the entire variety of paperwork within the chosen assortment, like so:

Inverse Document Frequency (time period) = log (variety of docs / (docs containing key phrase)

With the IDF rating, now you can measure the significance of a goal key phrase/phrase to a web page, not simply its variety of makes use of. This is essential as a result of it’s placing you within the mindset of the people who find themselves constructing search engine algorithms.

Why does it Matter to SEOs?

The finish aim of having the ability to fill out this equation is to give you the option to give an actionable relevance score to your content. Using TF IDF instruments accessible, you may then examine your scores to the scores of the top-performing pages for any time period.

By grading pages on this measure, you may practically pull again the curtain on how Google would possibly grade websites devoted to the identical subject.

It’s unknown if Google use TF IDF of their algorithm, and if they’re, is it a mutated type of it or not? That stated, there have been some non-public correlation research that I’ve been privy whose information means that it’s probably.

TF IDF evaluation permits you to optimize the stability of phrases in your content material in accordance to what’s already being rewarded by the algorithm.

That’s large for the Search engine marketing neighborhood as a result of it marks the return of one thing all of the outdated hats knew and…beloved?

Keyword Density Returns?

again meme

Nope. No one beloved the times when key phrase density reigned.

However, utilizing TF IDF for Search engine marketing might mark a return to the primacy of phrases and key phrases as an essential marker—simply in a really totally different means.

The factor is, Google by no means even relied on density of key phrases as a measure of worth. It simply appeared as in the event that they did to individuals who didn’t perceive how the algorithm actually labored.

Instead, that Search engine marketing technique was an early try to sport out how Google was actually utilizing TF IDF for its indexing and recall.

People have been key phrase stuffing their articles, so then algos and filters got here out to fight it (hello, panda).

So, in a means, key phrase density is again.  It ran away from residence as a surly teen and has returned as a mature grownup with a level within the sciences.

It was an early, restricted tactic that largely inspired unhealthy habits. Measuring key phrase use TF IDF gives you an thought (a minimum of so far as the highest search outcomes are utilizing them) stability. It reveals what phrases are thought of pure, in a really exact means.

Using TF IDF Analysis to improve Keyword Research

TF IDF evaluation goes a step additional than simply the density of key phrases. In the best way, it opens you to insights about complete households of phrases on a web site, which may take your key phrase analysis to the subsequent degree.

For instance, think about that you just’ve already accomplished key phrase analysis to optimize a web page for “DUI lawyer Chicago”. Most analysis instruments for key phrases will spit out key phrases like “DUI lawyer in chicago”, “chicago DUI attorney”, and many others.

When you employ the TF IDF instruments that I’m masking in a while, you’ll additionally give you the option to discover associated non-Search engine marketing phrases which are being utilized by the top-ranked pages that you’d have by no means discovered earlier than utilizing regular key phrase analysis. Terms like “legal”, “experienced”, “rights” and “practice”.

dui lawyer chicago

These phrases wouldn’t have proven up in key phrase analysis instruments as a result of the articles themselves aren’t rating for them, but they’re wanted to inform the story of the search intent.

Let’s put the equation to use.

Fortunately, you received’t want to do it by hand on your websites. There’s at all times a device to use, and also you’re just a few scrolls from seeing the on-page Search engine marketing instruments I’ve examined for outcomes.

Putting TF*IDF Analysis to Use

Oh, no. More math.

At this level you could be having highschool flashbacks, twisting round in your chair trying desperately for the wall clock that may let you know if you’re free.

Don’t fear, this time, I’m going to do the mathematics. Immediately after this, we’ll get to the juicy stuff—How to use TF IDF for Search engine marketing functions.

Let’s check out the equation in motion…

Say {that a} doc, corresponding to a shopper’s touchdown web page you’re inspecting, accommodates the key phrase “PPC” 12 instances, and is about 100 phrases in size. If you wished to start analyzing this piece of content material, you’ll start by plugging that into the time period frequency equation from earlier.

TF (PPC) = (12 / 100) = 0 .12

Now, say that you just wished to perceive how this utilization in contrast to the utilization of this time period on the remainder of the online. From a pattern measurement of 10,000,000, a minimum of a few of these pages are going to be about internet companies and can embody references to PPC. Let’s say, 300,000 of them.

We can use these numbers to end the Inverse Document Frequency equation.

IDF (PPC) = log (10,000,000/300,000) = 1.52

Now you rating your web page based mostly on that time period with the TF*IDF equation

TF*IDF (PPC) = 0.12 * 1.52 = 0.182

That’s an amazing rating. Or is it?

The reality is, it’s probably not a matter of assembly a restrict. You need to deliver your rating for focused phrases into stability with the best-performing URLs on web page 1.

A excessive rating for a sure time period isn’t essentially a very good factor (12 makes use of in 100 phrases is quite a bit, in any case).

What about Common Terms like “the” and “of”?

You could also be questioning, what concerning the noise?

What about all of the frequent phrases like “of”, “the” or “and”? Because of the best way the equation is structured, this noise isn’t actually an issue.

The complete set of paperwork makes use of these phrases steadily, so the prominence of these phrases is scaled down significantly.

Let’s return to the equation. To actually illustrate the distinction, we’ll say that there are as many makes use of of “of” on the web page as there are of “PPC”.

TF (OF) = (12 /100) = 0 .12

But look what occurs after we end the IDF equation with the information that the overwhelming majority of search outcomes will include the phrase “of”, say 8,000,000 of them.

IDF (OF) = log (10,000,000/8,000,000) = 0.09

That would make the ultimate TF IDF worth:

TF*IDF (OF) = 0 .12 * 0.09 = 0.010

The TF IDF worth will increase proportionally to the variety of instances the phrase is used within the doc, however on this case, it’s so offset by the frequency of the phrase all through the remainder of the gathering, that its worth rating is cratered in contrast to the final instance.

In different phrases, the extra frequent the phrase is, the smaller the inverse doc frequency turns into.

What about Phrases?

Google have a tendency to give an outsize weight to multi-word phrases over single phrases.


This is particularly true when the pure high quality of language is being thought of.

Naturally, you need to carry these issues over to the way you carry out your TF IDF assessments.

Fortunately, that takes no further effort in your half. Most TF IDF instruments are able to calculating key phrases as 2-word and 3-word variations.

When TF IDF was used completely for educational and analysis functions, phrases have been already calculated as both 2-word units known as bigrams, or 3-word units known as trigrams. That similar observe was adopted by serps, so it’s essential to analyze your content material the identical means they do.

Using the instance of a PPC web page from earlier than, let’s take a look at a phrase which may seem on that web page, and what the phrases might counsel concerning the subject.

“A PPC campaign needs many ads”

Each set of two phrases on this phrase may very well be calculated as a set of bigrams.

  • A PPC
  • PPC marketing campaign
  • marketing campaign wants
  • and many others.

When a 3rd phrase is added, it turns into even clearer how a lot essential context is added when longer phrases are thought of.

  • A PPC Campaign
  • PPC marketing campaign wants
  • marketing campaign wants many
  • and many others.

Not all TF IDF instruments are able to dealing with greater than two combos. I’ll go into extra element into the capabilities of every within the device comparability positioned additional down.

How to use TF*IDF

TF IDF suits neatly into the content material improvement course of of just about any Search engine marketing.

It’s a way of studying extra when you’ve began constructing content material’s Search engine marketing technique, after which realizing the place and the way to good it once more.

Once you’ve chosen a device, solely it’s a step-by-step course of to get extra perception into every key phrase selection. If you haven’t chosen a TF IDF device but, you’ll find the info from the checks I carried out with them within the subsequent part.

1) Write content material

write semantically related content

Write content material to the best requirements , or refer to a bit of content material that you just’re optimizing for a shopper. Create an inventory of 1, two or three-word subjects that you really want to cowl and take it to the TF*IDF device that you just’ve chosen.

Your aim right here is to goal key phrases and the URLs of the highest domains that concentrate on them to reveal what subjects you might be lacking and what subjects you aren’t masking in sufficient depth.

2) Plug right into a TF*IDF device

Each device works barely in a different way, as you’ll give you the option to see beneath. They additionally observe totally different data, however probably the most helpful on-page Search engine marketing instruments are geared towards serving to you perceive how your rivals are discovering success with their use of key phrases.

Take benefit of any options your chosen device has to assist you to uncover phrases which are related to the highest 10-20 top-ranking URLs, after which produce scores that mirror the burden of one another time period they’re utilizing.

3) Re-optimize content material

Now that you’ve a whole thought of the subjects lined by every of your rivals and an understanding of how steadily these phrases are used, you need to use that data to refine your personal content material.

Take a second go on the content material and search for pure methods to introduce subjects that you just haven’t lined but. Remember, your motivation will not be to do key phrase stuffing unnaturally, however to restore pure connections the place they’re presently lacking.

4) Publish

Publish the content material up to date with the insights you’ve lately gleaned from your evaluation of the google search outcomes. From right here, you may proceed to analyze it, and any adjustments within the ranks.

5) Show earlier than and after TF*IDF Search outcomes

surfer content optimization before and after

One of the rewards of TF*IDF is that it permits you to observe efficiency at a really minute degree. Before and after every adjustment you make to your content material, you may produce screenshots of how the stability of subjects in your pages has modified. These are helpful to purchasers who’re desirous about seeing particular goal key phrase metrics for adjustments you’re making of their content material.

Now, we’re prepared to get into the half you’ve been ready for!

I’ve had an opportunity to play with the entire greatest TF*IDF instruments by myself websites, and I’ve quite a bit to present you about what they’ll do.

But first, let me share some outcomes I’ve gotten from testing TF*IDF within the precise Interwebs.

Testing Results

I’d like to preface this part by saying that I’ve truly been testing TF*IDF for over a 12 months.

Ever since I first seemed into niche-based semantic density algorithms, the idea struck a harmonious chord with me.

And though the suitable mindset going into any type of experimentation is agnosticism, I actually wished TF*IDF to work.

That stated… for a really very long time, I obtained lackluster outcomes.

And then issues modified.

I’m about to stroll you thru the timeline, however first, let me describe how I examined it.

Identifying Testcases for TF*IDF Experiments

Creating single-variable take a look at buildings is sort of difficult for this explicit situation.

keyword testing dog

What is a single variable take a look at?

In a brilliant managed take a look at surroundings, you’ll have two teams of testcases.

One group can be the management group.

In the management group, you don’t change something.  You’re merely getting a “baseline” end result to examine towards the experimental group.

The experimental group is totally equivalent to the management group in most regards.

The internet pages might need the identical varieties of backlinks, goal the identical key phrase, and many others.  All these variables should be comparable and fixed between one another, or else the take a look at is flawed.

However, with the experimental group, you modify one factor.  This is the “single variable”.  And on this case, it will be TF*IDF optimization.

For the web sites within the experimental group, you’ll carry out TF*IDF optimization, allow them to sit, after which examine the outcomes towards the management group.

The problem with Search engine marketing testing is which you could by no means management all of the variables.  There’s at all times noise coming alongside within the type of backlinks, site visitors, competitors, algorithm adjustments, and many others.

You understand how Search engine marketing is.  It’s noisy AF.

One means folks like to create Search engine marketing checks is by utilizing gibberish phrases.

Let’s say we create 10 inner-pages on the identical area, all focusing on some made-up phrase like “flubblegoblin”.

They’d take up the highest 10 spots in Google since there’s no search outcomes for “flubblegoblin” (but).


These pages can be very comparable in size, optimization, and many others.

You might then optimize three of them with TF*IDF, allow them to sit, after which if TF*IDF works, they need to begin rating #1-3, proper?

But this method is flawed from the beginning.

You’d have to optimize their content material with respect to all the opposite pages you’ve constructed, which have been already created equally to one another.

Thus, for those who arrange the experiment accurately from the start, there can be no optimization attainable.  They’re already equivalent.

So useless finish right here too.

Alas, I went with the next method to testing.

I might isolate a number of pages on a number of reside web sites that had the next traits:

  • Static rankings for a minimum of a month’s time
  • Not receiving any backlinks or inside hyperlink juice

I might then apply TF IDF content material optimization and allow them to sit for about 30 days and look out for will increase or decreases in rankings.

I’m not totally pleased with this method as numerous “noise” can enter on this experiment construction from algorithm adjustments, the web sites getting older themselves, and many others.

So, I made a decision to fight this inaccuracy, by testing over a number of phases and many alternative pages.

Now onto the present.

Phase 1 – Between December and March

Aka, the darkish ages.

Optimization instruments:

My first experiments with TF*IDF optimization have been run between the dates talked about above.

I ran experiments on three totally different events, on 12 totally different URLs, and tracked 36 totally different key phrases (3 per URL).

In every case, the outcomes have been left to accept 45 days (simply in case).

Here are the lackluster outcomes:

phase 1 tfidf SEO test results

Whomp whomp.

There didn’t appear to be a lot impact in both the optimistic or adverse path.

After a lot testing and outcomes like these, why did I proceed?

Because, as I discussed earlier than, I used to be actually into the idea and I used to be (to be frank) fairly shocked it didn’t do something.

I began doubting my testcase integrity and the instruments I used to be utilizing.

Eventually, I simply informed myself I might proceed to take a look at this periodically simply to “checkup” on issues.

Phase 2 – April

For this second spherical of testing, I made a decision to stick to Text Tools for the evaluation and content material optimization.


For one as a result of the software program allowed for in-tool changes, so I might edit my textual content and re-evaluate on the fly (I’ll be doing a device evaluation later on this article).

And two, as a result of the proprietor gave me a free license (thanks Michael).

I used to be shocked to see the next outcomes the twond time round.

phase 2 tf idf analysis test results

On two of the three testcases, we skilled optimistic motion.

It wasn’t groundbreaking motion, however sufficient to present a pattern.

But right here was the kicker.

During this cut-off date, a core algorithm replace was launched.  It occurred in March to be actual.

The two websites that confirmed optimistic motion have been presently getting beat-up by this algorithm replace.

And whereas all pages on the positioning have been experiencing a loss in rankings, the pages the place I used to be testing TF IDF device both held their floor or gained rankings.

And then I discovered articles like this…

sej article

If these algorithm updates have been about relevance, then what higher indicator of relevance than the rattling phrases that seem on internet pages.

The coincidence was sufficient to peak my curiosity.

Was it sufficient for me to fully log off on TF IDF and add it to my commonplace working procedures (SOP)?

Absolutely not.

Only extra testing might do this.

Phase 3 – May

Nothing modified on this experiment.

I continued to use Text Tools as my software program of selection.

The solely factor totally different was new testcases and a special date.

phase 3 tf idf analysis test results

The developments remained the identical as in section 2.

More optimistic outcomes.

This time I dug into issues and observed some patterns.

Results sometimes worsen earlier than they get higher

In 61% of the key phrases I used to be monitoring, the key phrases obtained worse earlier than they obtained higher.

Only after 22-24 days after the preliminary kick-off and re-caching of the brand new optimized textual content did the rankings begin to flip the nook.

By optimizing one key phrase, you would possibly deoptimize one other

I do numerous affiliate Search engine marketing, so many of the pages I used to be experimenting with have been evaluation pages.

So, when deciding which key phrases to analyze and optimize for I might sometimes go for “best ___” key phrases like “best protein powder”.

Yet, for the testing, I used to be monitoring a variety of key phrases corresponding to “protein powder benefits”.

Those key phrases that aren’t actually associated to review-oriented queries like “best protein powder” or “protein powder reviews” have been extra probably to expertise adverse motion.

Phase 4 – August

This time round I made a decision to use a special device: Link Assistant’s Website Auditor.

I switched issues up from Text Tools as there’s (what I imagine to be) a flaw in its implantation, which I’ll talk about later.

Here’s the outcomes:

phase 4 tfidf test results

At this level, I began to really feel snug sufficient with the outcomes to warrant writing this text and to begin incorporating this system into our SOP.

Especially with outcomes like these that required zero hyperlink constructing:


Tool Comparison: Surfer vs Website Auditor vs Text Tools

Here’s a comparability of three of the most well-liked instruments in the marketplace which can be utilized for TF IDF content material evaluation and optimization: Surfer’s True Density vs Link Assistant’s Website Auditor vs Text Tools.

TF*IDF Tool Comparison

Platform (Winner: Surfer)

Surfer is run within the cloud.  You log in to their platform and all of the onpage search engine optimisation evaluation is run server-side.

true density screen

Obviously, that is the best way most of us like to run our software program lately (if attainable) so we’re giving our vote to Surfer when it comes to platform.

Text Tools can also be run within the cloud and has some good graphical views (see beneath), however Surfer has a slight edge when it comes to the facility of their platform.  Surfer doesn’t simply do TFIDF, it does much more.

using td idf text tools

Website Auditor is a downloadable piece of software program.  The free model of it contains TF*IDF evaluation.

It’s a fairly stable device, as you may see beneath.

website auditor dashboard

Nonetheless, we nonetheless choose to work on the cloud so the vote goes to Surfer.

Usability (Winner: Surfer)

Right off the bat, Website Auditor has a giant strike towards it since you may’t save initiatives.

This is a function that’s unlocked if you improve to the paid model of the device, so I suppose it’s a moot level, however I simply thought I might throw it in there.

Text Tools is a bit glitchy on Chrome.  At least the model I’m taking part in with proper now.

For the lifetime of me, I can’t change between the varied tabs within the evaluation mode on Chrome.  I’m caught in overview mode and may’t get into the juicy stuff like “Compare” the place you analyze your URL vs the evaluation of the competitors.


That stated, on Firefox all the things is okay.

I envision a productive TF IDF workflow to work like this:

  • Analysis of the competitors
  • Comparison towards your content material
  • Optimization of your content material
  • Re-comparison towards your content material
  • Publish

Text Tools permits you to copy and paste your web page’s textual content into the device itself.  If you make adjustments to the content material, you may merely edit the content material within the device, and re-analyze to see the way you’ve executed.

Website Auditor solely compares towards URLs.  You both want to make adjustments to your reside content material or publish your content material in a Google doc and have the device analyze that.

It’s not a deal-breaker, however it takes time and its annoying.

Now Surfer takes in any respect to one other degree and offers you a “Content Editor” function which supplies you key phrase stuffing completion charges on the fly.

true density screen

This makes Surfer tremendous simple to work with.

Accuracy (Winner: Surfer)

As my group and I have been taking part in round with Text Tools, we began noticing one thing unusual.

Let’s say you analyze a key phrase like “keyword cannibalization”.

When evaluating the end result vs my article on key phrase cannibalization, you’ll discover a end result that appears like this:


You’ll discover that for the phrase “strategy” my content material (yellow line) will get a zero as a result of I don’t have that phrase on my web page.

But what you’ll discover is that though it seems that the typical is about 3.4, I might simply want to add the phrase “strategy” as soon as to soar up to enough numbers.

I talked to the developer Michael Kaiser about this (a stunning man by the best way), and he stated his device denotes the y-axis as a “weight”, calculated internally.  And numerous the time, including a phrase as soon as to an article is sufficient to fulfill the burden requirement.

This is okay, however I’m extra in search of precise steering on what number of instances every phrase ought to seem within the article.

Website Auditor delivers that however it has a important flaw…

zoom in on website auditor

Website Auditor doesn’t take phrase depend into consideration!

If I’ve a 500-word article and everybody else has a 1000-word article on web page 1, it’ll nonetheless give me steering as if I had 1000 phrases, inflicting me to over-optimize. Sheesh.

So once more, Surfer steals the present.

Surfer’s TFIDF algorithm known as True Density, which is somewhat bit totally different, however for my part, extra correct.

It additionally breaks down the steering between phrases, phrases, and numbers.

true density granularity

And in fact, it pulls the win within the accuracy class due to this algorithm and the essential proven fact that it takes phrase depend into consideration.

Cost (Winner: Website Auditor)

Unfair competitors.  You can’t compete with free.

Our Choice: Surfer Search engine marketing

surfer logo

Text Tools has numerous issues going for it.  I’d a lot fairly work on the cloud and carry out my edits inside a device so I can do a fast reanalysis.

Website Auditor is free, however it has its flaws by way of accuracy.

At the tip of the day, I’m in search of a cloud-based resolution that offers me steering, on a granular degree, of the area of interest common density of key phrases for every phrase and phrase. For this, I’m sticking with Surfer.


What is TF IDF Search engine marketing?

This is the Search engine marketing means of optimizing your content material’s key phrase density with the steering of the algorithm often called TF IDF.

How does TF IDF work?

TF IDF refers to the time period frequency instances the inverse doc frequency. TF grows increased with the variety of instances a given key phrase seems on a web page. While IDF decreases the worth of generally used phrases corresponding to “and”.

Each phrase will get a rating, which can be utilized to decide the significance of varied phrases in content material.

Does Google use TF IDF?

It’s unlikely Google makes use of TF IDF in its entirety. If Google does use it, it’s a sophisticated model that has advanced previous its authentic understanding within the Seventies.

Who invented TF IDF?

British pc scientist Karen Spärck Jones invented TF*IDF.

Can TF IDF be adverse?

No. Both values TF and IDF can by no means be adverse.


I hope this text has helped clear issues up concerning the extraordinarily helpful, but typically misunderstood, TF*IDF evaluation.

You’ve not solely realized the arithmetic behind it but additionally the way it applies to on web page Search engine marketing and creating relevance in your articles.

You’ve additionally seen some take a look at outcomes of how optimization reveals up within the high 10 of Google SERPs, in addition to a comparability of the most well-liked instruments in the marketplace.

If you might have any questions, please use the remark field beneath.



Matt is the founding father of Diggity Marketing, LeadSpring, The Search Initiative, The Affiliate Lab, and the Chiang Mai Search engine marketing Conference. He truly does Search engine marketing too.


Check Also

Top SEO Services In Fort Lauderdale

Top SEO Services In Fort Lauderdale

Fort Lauderdale SEO consultants supply the best SEO providers for native companies in Florida. If …