Complete On-Page SEO Checklist 2023 – Globex Outreach

Complete On-Page SEO Checklist 2023 – Globex Outreach

A well-thought-out on-page SEO guidelines helps companies create leads and switch these leads into paying prospects. Furthermore, on-page SEO is sort of cost-effective. In addition, it offers numerous long-term advantages, together with viewers engagement and shopper loyalty. So, investing in an on-page SEO guidelines 2023 is the selection you have to be making!

Onpage seo

Source: Moz

On-page SEO is the idea upon which your web site have to be constructed if you wish to obtain greater search engine rankings. On-page and off-page SEO are inextricably linked. If you lack certainly one of them, your web site’s prospects of rating excessive are slim.

SEO Checklist

Source: Slide Team

Off-page SEO entails link-building techniques, the outcomes of which aren’t at all times in your management. The benefit of on-page SEO is that it’s fully beneath your management. On-page SEO is utilized to each the seen and coded parts of your web site. It applies to each customers and engines like google.


So, let’s begin with one of the best on-page SEO guidelines 2023, lets?

On Page Search Engine Optimization Checklist

Every time you revamp your outdated content material or publish a brand new article, you should guarantee that you’ve addressed each part out of your SEO on web page actions listing. It’s pure to really feel overwhelmed by the sheer amount of tasks at hand. 


So, how do you do on-page SEO step-by-step?


Fortunately, we’ve created a complete on-page SEO guidelines 2023 to help you in mastering your on-page SEO. 


Let’s dive proper in proper now !

  • Identify Your Target Keywords

Target key phrases, or in different phrases, related search queries, are instrumental for on-page SEO. After all, your goal is to look greater within the search outcomes for key phrases which might be related.


Conduct key phrase analysis to find out what mixtures of phrases and phrases viewers use to seek out internet pages just like yours. 

Types of FirepitsSource: SEMrush Blog

But what metrics do it is advisable to take note of? 


  • Search Intent
  • Keyword Search Volume
  • Keyword Difficulty

Keywords Difficulty

Source: Mangools

By conducting key phrase evaluation and comprehending search intent, you possibly can choose the perfect goal key phrases. You can then work in your web page’s optimization in accordance with your fundamental on-page SEO guidelines.

People are drawn to visible stuff, notably movies. Adding movies to your internet web page will hold your guests in your web site longer and decrease bounce charges, each of that are necessary rating necessities for Google.

Social Media Promotion

As an e-commerce retailer proprietor, it is advisable to get your movies listed by Google. At the identical time, it’s crucial that your readers and Google perceive what your video is about. 


You can comply with the next tricks to make your content material interesting to engines like google and customers:


  • Design an eye catching and related thumbnail that matches your matter. 
  • Create compelling and quick titles to your movies, together with the goal key phrase.
  • Try so as to add subtitles to your movies for viewers who like to look at movies with out sound.
  • Make positive that the content material in your web page and in your video align with one another.
  • Write a multi-paragraph description of your video. Use it to explain what your video entails and add your major and secondary key phrases to it.

Why do movies have to be part of your on-page SEO guidelines 2023? Because they drive a wholesome ROI and are well-liked amongst viewers. The stats show it:

Usage of Online video

Source: Search Engine Land

  1. Create High-Quality On-Page Content

The content material you add to your internet pages is the center of your on-page optimization. It informs each readers and main engines like google about your corporation and its on-line presence. 

content quality vs quantity

Source: Scoop It

The first step you have to be ticking off your on-page SEO guidelines 2023 is a number of related key phrases and matters to your content material. You have to analysis key phrases correctly as a way to see what your rivals are doing and the way their web sites are showing in SERPs. Plus, you need to use instruments like UberSuggest, SEMrush, Ahrefs, and AnswerthePublic.


Moreover, earlier than you begin utilizing on web site SEO ideas and methods, it is advisable to understand how your web page content material suits inside your purchaser’s journey and your audiences’ search intent.

Buyers Journey

Source: Qualtrics

These components will decide the way in which you employ your key phrases and the forms of content material you publish.

The Best SEO Practices for Creating High-Quality Page Content

Here’s the whole lot it is advisable to do if you wish to create content material that’s able to luring your readers and guiding them towards conversion:


  • Create content material to your particular purchaser persona
  • Make positive your content material solutions your audiences’ questions and solves their issues
  • Write content material that you just suppose folks will need to hyperlink to and share with others
  • Add each quick and long-tail key phrases to your content material in a pure and non-spammy approach
  • Optimize your content material for conversions by including calls to motion on product pages
  • Don’t overlook so as to add related and interesting photos, movies, and different media

Content Checklist

The high-quality web page content material is your likelihood to supply worth to Google and your web site’s guests; it’s the beating coronary heart of any on-page SEO information. All different on-page SEO components are derived from high-quality web page content material. Therefore, dedicate ample time to growing and optimizing it.

  • Setup Your Google Search Console

You want your Google Search Console up and working if you wish to rank excessive in Google’s SERPs.


The Google Search Console was created to assist folks observe their web site’s efficiency in Google Search. Needless to say, it’s an extraordinarily highly effective SEO device.

setup search Console

Source: Search Engine Watch


And it’s free!!!


It has an array of options that may turn out to be useful, particularly in case you are ticking off on web page SEO components in 2023:



Source: Stack Exchange

In a nutshell, in case you are critical about on-page SEO actions and truly need to rank, it is advisable to arrange the Google Search Console.

  • Pay Attention to Mobile-First Indexing

We reside in a world that’s digitally obsessed. People are on their telephones always. A web site optimized for smartphones and cell gadgets is not only a luxurious. It is a necessity! 


So, must you embrace mobile-first indexing in your on-page SEO guidelines 2023?

mobile first indexing

Source: Designer Websites

Surprisingly, this issue is so necessary that Google won’t even rank a web page if it isn’t optimized for cell customers. Furthermore, in relation to web site indexing and rating, Google favors mobile-optimized web sites. 


Keep your phrases and paragraphs transient, make the most of outstanding buttons, and use easy-to-read typefaces to make your web site interesting to mobile-viewing customers. 


Looking for suggestions on how properly your web site fares? Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test has received your again.

Mobile friendly test

Source: Google Search Central

This free device by Google tells customers how successfully their internet pages are optimized for cell gadgets.

  • Make Sure to Optimize Your Images

They say, ‘art imitates life.’ 


The photos you add to your content material inform a narrative. However, whereas folks love seeing photos, Google isn’t able to understanding them in the way in which people do.


In order to make Google perceive your photos, it is advisable to optimize them. Add filenames and alt tags. 

Image SEO

Source: Speed Boostr

But how? 


Here’s how: 


Start by saving your picture with a filename that correctly tells what the picture is about.


For instance, you save an image of hen marinara to your laptop computer. Your filename must be clear and concise, one thing like: 




Once you may have carried out that, add a descriptive alt tag if you add the picture to your content material or your web site.

Here Is Your Image Optimization Checklist:

Here is the whole lot it is advisable to embrace in your on web page SEO guidelines for photos: 


Add alt textual content to your photos: An alt textual content is a substitute for textual content for a picture. Google makes use of alt textual content to know the picture. Plus, it additionally helps visually handicapped individuals who use display screen readers. Make positive that it has your major key phrase.

Image SEO 2

Source: University of Dayton

Don’t substitute the content material with photos: Images and alt textual content are supposed to improve your content material. Alt textual content doesn’t substitute textual content. It is meant to be only some phrases. Therefore, should you’re including photos to your content material to convey additional info related to your major key phrase, make it possible for the content material can also be written out within the web page’s physique textual content.


Optimize your photos for velocity: Adjust the scale of your photos in order that their width doesn’t exceed your internet web page’s most width, in addition to compress them to attenuate file scale with out sacrificing picture high quality. If you may have an enormous web site with loads of photos, you must think about using a content material supply community.

Moble page speed

Source: Think With Google

Your picture should convey worth: Instead of including empty, meaningless visuals, your photos ought to exhibit the ideas mentioned in your internet web page. You can use screenshots, graphs, flowcharts, and even your personal illustrations.


Optimize the filename: Your major key phrase must be included within the identify of the image you undergo your web page. Replace any areas within the filename utilizing underscores or dashes. Otherwise, they are going to be changed with “%20” or another nonsense that doesn’t seem reliable and might have an effect on your picture’s rating in picture outcomes.

Image Filename


  • Use Internal Links to Improve Navigation 

Internal linking is an integral a part of advance on web page SEO strategies that make it rank on the prime of SERPs. How do they do this? Well, inner linking helps customers and engines like google discover their approach round your web site. 


In different phrases, they act like a journey information!


Sounds fascinating, proper? 


For instance, Bed Bath and Beyond has inner hyperlinks to its ‘comforter sets,’ ‘bed sheets,’ ‘UGG,’ and ‘Therapedic’ in its ‘bedding’ web page’s description.

Internal Linking

Internal Linking

Source: Bed Bath and Beyond

You can even discover useful hyperlinks in its navigation menu, breadcrumb navigation, footer, and different components.


One factor to pay attention to is how Bed Bath and Beyond’s inner hyperlinks have descriptive, simple anchor texts as an alternative of generic texts like ‘Click here.’ 


Here’s one other instance from the hair care web page on their web site:

Internal Linking

Descriptive anchor hyperlinks like those Bed Bath and Beyond have; assist engines like google like Google and Bing perceive what the (inner) linked web page is about.


If you might be engaged on informational pages, then we suggest including exterior hyperlinks to your listing of on web page SEO finest practices in 2023 as properly. 

Authority links
Source: Orbit Media Studios

When you hyperlink out to high-quality and high-authority sources, it reveals Google that you’ve carried out your analysis along with your audiences’ finest pursuits in thoughts.

  • Incorporate LSI Keywords and Synonyms in Your Page

It was a typical follow to stuff as many key phrases as you need. However, that’s not the case anymore. Things have modified. Google has advanced.


Today’s Google is a brilliant Google.

LSI Keywords

Source: Pinterest

It can penalize you for following an old style SEO on web page actions listing. 


Therefore, as an alternative of stuffing the identical seed key phrase lots of of occasions, use LSI key phrases and synonyms in your content material. 


For instance, let’s assume you need to rank on a key phrase corresponding to ‘how to start a company.’


Instead of utilizing the identical phrase all through your article, one of the best follow could be to make use of synonyms and associated key phrases like: 


  • how you can create an organization
  • how you can open a enterprise
  • how you can begin a enterprise
  • how you can make an organization
  • how you can begin a small enterprise


You get the gist of it.

Keyword Research

Once you may have related phrases locked in, use some LSI key phrases as properly. These associate with the first key phrase. 


You can use a device corresponding to LSIGraph to seek out them.


Make positive that this technique is part of your on-page SEO guidelines 2023.

  • A Good Keyword Placement Strategy

Keywords Placement

Source: Business 2 Community

Now that we have now established the significance of LSI key phrases and synonyms let’s speak about their placement. Keyword placement, an integral a part of the on-page SEO guidelines 2023, could make or break your SEO sport. 

Where to Intentionally Place Keywords?

We have created a key phrase placement guidelines so that you can make it possible for your on-page SEO sport is on the prime: 


  • Title tag
  • First 100 phrases of the web page
  • Meta description
  • Page title
  • Image alt textual content
  • Headings (add a key phrase in a minimal of two H2s in your internet web page)
  • Image file identify (be sure the identify describes the picture)

Keyword Placement 101

If you might be getting confused with the above on web page SEO guidelines 2023, don’t worry. You will get the dangle of issues when you begin making use of them day by day. 

  • Your Meta Description Needs to Boost Clicks

Your meta description is your web page’s description which will be seen within the search outcomes. This is what it appears to be like like: 


And the next textual content in your HTML code when engaged on SEO

Meta description 101

While the meta-description doesn’t have an effect on your rankings instantly, it’s the key to standing out and attracting extra clicks. Hence it’s a very important a part of our on-page guidelines 2023.


So, in case your meta description isn’t part of your on web page SEO components guidelines, it is advisable to add it to the listing ASAP.


Leverage it to inform the reader what they are going to get out of your web page and why they should go to it within the first place. Besides, it will need to have your major key phrase. Make it stand out.

Meta DescriptionSource: Delante

Keep in thoughts that Google typically generates meta descriptions and meta tags by itself. So, should you optimize your meta-description as a part of your fundamental on-page SEO guidelines, you possibly can lower the chance of Google taking management.


Furthermore, attempt to abide by the restrict of 120 characters max, together with areas, to decrease the chance of Google truncating it in cell and desktop SERPs.

You will encounter two forms of titles on an online web page for an internet site:


Meta title / Title tag / SEO title: This is the title that individuals see within the SERPs. A great title tag ought to have 60 characters or decrease than that. It should embrace the first key phrase you’re after. Make positive your key phrase is originally of the headline to keep away from being chopped off on smaller gadgets.

H1 tag: H1 title is the web page title that guests see once they land on the internet web page. You have larger leeway to be revolutionary and to exhibit worth right here, however the key phrase have to be included.

Title Optimization

Source: Reliable Soft

It is necessary to concentrate to your title tag and H1 tag when creating an on-page SEO guidelines 2023. They don’t have to be completely different. However, you possibly can change issues up. 

What Are the Characteristics of a Strong Headline?

A powerful headline impacts the choice of whether or not a consumer will click on via to your web site. Hence it’s a should for the on-page SEO guidelines 2023.

H1 Optimization

Source: Wordstream

Here’s how you can determine a powerful headline:


It conveys worth to the readers. For instance, a title like ‘7 reasons you need to try green tea’ received’t make the readers click on. However, a title like “7 the reason why inexperienced tea could make you drop pounds’, does.


It doesn’t make false guarantees. Do not title your article as the last word information if it doesn’t have all of the content material an final information does. 


It Is descriptive. Something so simple as ‘services’ is likely to be descriptive as a web page title, nevertheless it received’t do something within the SERPs. On the opposite hand, ‘affordable SEO link building packages’ is fascinating.

  • Always Review Your Content’s Quality

The topicality of your content material is closely influenced by search intent. A quick description, for instance, might fulfill a product shopper. However, somebody on the lookout for info might select a complete information.

To compete within the SERPs and hold customers engaged, your content material should fulfill a rigorous standards in any case. That is why, when finishing your on-page SEO guidelines, you must think about content material high quality.

Some of the Most Important Content Quality Indicators Are as Follows:

  • Accuracy: Your content material must be grammatically appropriate, up-to-date, and factually appropriate.
  • Originality: The content material must be freed from plagiarism. Do not copy enormous chunks of content material from elsewhere.
  • Length: Make positive your content material is complete and concise. 
  • Readability: Readers will depart your web site in case your writing is simply too tough to learn. Check that the studying degree is ample to your target market.
  • Formatting: Headings, subheadings, Paragraph breaks, tables, graphs, bullet factors, and different formatting options can enhance the readability of your work.
  • Tone of Voice: It isn’t solely what you say, but additionally the way you say it. The applicable tone of voice is set by your matter matter and meant viewers.


And within the case of author’s block, you possibly can at all times use an AI device like ChatGPT to rephrase or compose content material.

  • Investigate Search Intent

Search Intents

Google could be very fascinated by search intent as a result of it saves customers time. And with the evolution of AI and key phrase analysis, google is extra targeted on consumer expertise. Therefore, to nobody’s shock, Google has began correcting spelling errors, understanding synonyms, and translating complete sentences.


Here’s how search intent is assessed: 


Informational: This contains search queries for normal consciousness about one thing. It usually contains short-tail key phrases, for instance:

search intent

Source: Google

Investigational: This form of intent solutions slender search phrases and specialised questions. It contains critiques and listicles that reply questions like when, what, the place, and how-to. For occasion:

Investigational Intent

Source: Google

Transactional: This search intent question reveals some motion or objective corresponding to sale, low cost, purchase, and so forth. For instance

Transactional Intent

Source: Google

Navigational: This form of search intent is expounded to discovering the way in which on the internet, because the identify suggests. This contains contact, cart, login, and so forth. For instance

Navigational Intent

Source: Google

How to Research Keywords Properly According to Search Intent

  • Use long-tail key phrases for Search Engine Optimization.
  • Optimize your content material for voice search by looking out spoken questions your goal demographic asks utilizing voice search.
  • Plus, optimize your blogs and articles for particular engines like google in addition to native key phrases.
  • Track key phrases and their ranks for cell phones as properly, and implement cell SEO for your corporation.
  • Once you may have researched key phrases to your ecommerce retailer, make use of key phrase mapping so you possibly can monitor your optimization efforts.


  • Do Not Neglect Schema Markup

Schema Markup
Source: SEMrush

Schema markup is likely one of the most necessary on web page SEO components. It aids in additional categorizing your info. It’s yet one more device for aiding engines like google in understanding and rating your content material. Schema markup, a kind of structured knowledge (SD), offers classifications to info in your web site. 


A standard instance of schema markup is recipe internet pages. We all have seen cooking occasions and energy on Google once we seek for a recipe. This info is supplied by Schema Markup earlier than a consumer even clicks the outcome. 

Schema markup

Source: Google

Structured knowledge, like the instance talked about above, can assist you enhance your web site site visitors.

  • User Experience Focused Content Is the Trend

An on-page SEO guidelines 2023 with out consumer experience-focused content material is harmful for any advertising technique. 

You have to design your web site’s content material along with your consumer in thoughts. This additionally contains your web site’s structure. Moreover, the weblog’s formatting ought to allow your customers to swiftly and simply navigate their approach via your web site’s content material to find the reply to their question.

User Focused Content

What are the components that may affect your customers’ expertise? Let’s discover out:


  • Straightforward headings and subheadings
  • Visual aids corresponding to movies and pictures
  • Not writing lengthy paragraphs and breaking the physique textual content up 
  • Using lists, textual content containers, and bullet factors 


You ought to then try to determine easy-to-read and navigate content material.


You need to be certain that your web page construction permits customers to get solutions to their questions as quick and simply as doable.

Buyers persona

Source: AZO Network

Make positive your content material is simple on the attention. Your reader will discover it seamless to navigate via your content material should you guarantee the next:


  • White area
  • Easy to learn and easy headings
  • Numbering
  • Bullet factors
  • Statistics
  • Images
  • Links


Add these to your on-page SEO guidelines 2023, and your readers will find it irresistible. 

  • Optimize Your Page Titles

Page titles are one of the crucial necessary on web page SEO components. They inform each engines like google and readers what to anticipate within the corresponding internet pages.

Page Titles

Source: Ahrefs Blog

Make positive that your title on each web page has your focus key phrase to ensure that your internet pages rank for the proper intent. Make your key phrase as pure and non-spammy as doable.

How to Develop a Page Title?

Include the next practices in your On-Page SEO Activities:


  • Do not write your title in ALL CAPS.
  • It must be beneath 60 characters to make it possible for it’s displayed appropriately. Google’s show titles max out after 600 pixels, so should you stick with 60 characters, your title received’t be lower off within the SERPs.
  • Include your model’s identify within the title. For instance:

SEO Tips

Source: Google

  • Do not do key phrase stuffing within the title. It appears to be like cheesy and spammy. Plus, trendy engines like google will penalize you.
  • Make the title related to the online web page.


  • Always Link Back to Your Sources

Linking again to credible exterior sources strengthens the credibility of the content material you present. 


Here are a number of examples of exterior hyperlinks which might be going to spice up the standard of your content material considerably: 


  • Statistics
  • Industry research 
  • Case research
  • Quotes from trade influencers
  • Research studies 

Link Back To source

Source: Commit Agency

Tip: You can even attempt typing one thing like “keyword site:EDU” or “keyword site:GOV” within the search bar to get official sources and academic web sites.

  • Leverage the Featured Snippets

Featured snippets present materials related to your consumer’s search question on the very prime of the search engine outcomes web page. It could possibly be a video, a definition, a listing, or perhaps a desk.


For occasion, should you seek for ‘what is a bohemian dress’ in Google’s search bar, you get a featured snippet on the prime of the SERPs. This is the proper instance of on-page SEO carried out proper. 

Featured Snippet

Source: Google

The little spotlight within the image above is named a featured snippet. A featured snippet solutions a query immediately. We strongly suggest optimizing your internet web page and selling your major and secondary key phrases for featured snippets.


You can even use an SEO device to find out your efficiency. For instance, Similar Web has a Keywords Page beneath the part known as Competitive Analysis. It tells its customers what key phrases rank for featured snippets beneath the SERP options column.


The phrase “flowy dress,” for example, isn’t linked to any featured snippet SERP characteristic.

Featured Snippet

Source: Google

On the opposite hand, within the picture given beneath, take a look at the phrase, “why are gaming computers so expensive.” This search question will be simply optimized for a featured snippet.

Featured Snippet

Source: Google

The level is that not all key phrases and search phrases will be optimized for featured snippets. So hold that in thoughts if you create your on-page SEO guidelines 2023.

  • Choose the Right Type of Content

Google has made it as clear as ice that content material is king. It is the last word key to getting ranked, as it’s crucial issue. 


But how do you discover out what sort of materials would rank the best? 


It is sort of simple.


All it is advisable to do is look at the SERPs to watch what kind of articles are rating on the prime. An in-depth SERP evaluation will reveal what forms of articles seem within the outcomes for a particular question.

Content Type

Source: Network 9

Let’s take a look at the forms of internet pages:


  • About us web page
  • Copyright web page
  • Privacy coverage web page
  • Home web page
  • Category pages
  • Downloads web page
  • Blog posts
  • Product pages
  • Service pages
  • Landing pages


Keeping all of the forms of pages in thoughts, listed below are all of the completely different sorts of content material codecs you possibly can attempt your hand at: 


  • Videos
  • How-to posts
  • Ultimate guides
  • Listicles
  • Podcasts
  • Interviews
  • Long-form articles
  • Reviews
  • Infographics 

Content Marketing Formats

Content codecs differ when it comes to the wealthy options they could purchase from Google, the forms of queries for which they rank, and even their comprehensiveness.

On-Page SEO Checklist 2023 FAQs

What Is the On-Page SEO Structure?

On web page Search engine optimization, or SEO, is the follow of optimizing your internet pages for engines like google and searchers as a way to enhance your rankings and site visitors.


What Is Off-Page SEO?

Off-page SEO or SEO refers to components exterior of your web site (apart from on-page) that contribute to your web site’s rating within the SERPs. 


Backlinks obtained from social media or hyperlink constructing are an instance of off-page SEO.


What Is an On-Page SEO Checklist for Local Businesses? 

There are fairly a number of on-page SEO actions you need to use when engaged on your corporation. Let’s check out an efficient on-page SEO guidelines 2023:


  • Featured Snippets
  • Header tags hierarchy
  • Schema make-up
  • Keyword analysis
  • Image optimization
  • Meta tags
  • H1 tag
  • High-quality content material 
  • Internal hyperlinks

Why Do You Need a Professional for On-Page Search Engine Optimization?

With this on-page SEO guidelines 2023, you may get a stable begin on optimizing your web site for on-page for your corporation. And from right here, Globex Outreach’s group is completely satisfied that can assist you out.


Our group provides full SEO companies, enabling purchasers to use sensible methods that correspond with their enterprise aims, model persona, viewers expectations, and different components. We do in depth analysis to develop targeted native SEO plans, after which we supervise all implementation. 

Globex Outreach

Globex Outreach

Choosing our SEO companies could be the best choice you make for the way forward for your corporation since we offer measurable, vital outcomes.


Find out extra particulars about how you can use the on-page SEO guidelines 2023 to your ecommerce retailer if you contact us as we speak!


Let’s speak about our on web page SEO companies!

Wrapping It Up

Now that you recognize How do you do on-page SEO step-by-step, it’s time to place the plan into motion! 


A great on-page SEO guidelines 2023 focused on optimizing internet pages and particular person posts on a selected web site. It is a protracted process that entails a number of, and a guidelines could make it simpler. 


You should first select a key phrase and embrace it in different points of your content material, such because the SEO title, meta title, meta description, and alt textual content. You must also make it possible for your content material solutions a query, is informative, readable, and meets the search objective. Consider optimizing your pictures with alt textual content and offering hyperlinks to associated posts as properly.


With Globex Outreach’s on-page SEO guidelines 2023, you’ll have the ability to be certain that your whole web site’s on-page components are optimized for Google. Just understand that having your key phrase analysis prepared will make issues significantly easier for you.


At the tip of the day, all you need to ask your self is that if your web site’s on web page SEO components guidelines is on level or not. If it isn’t, it is advisable to do an audit!


Best of luck to your on-page SEO guidelines 2023!

Check Also

A Columbia University Professor Urges Art Students to “Embrace the Machines” In Digital Storytelling—Here’s How His Lessons Are Relevant to Business Owners Looking to Creatively Collaborate with AI

A Columbia University Professor Urges Art Students to “Embrace the Machines” In Digital Storytelling—Here’s How His Lessons Are Relevant to Business Owners Looking to Creatively Collaborate with AI

A latest New York Times article detailed a professor who’s one thing of an anomaly …